The history of search engines and Russian SEO: who to whom?

September is a significant month for the search marketing market. In September, Google and Yandex search engines celebrate their birthdays. The American corporation under the leadership of Sergey Brin and Larry Page was founded in September 1998, and the Yandex.Ru search engine was introduced in September 1997. I do not know what associations this fact gives rise in your minds, I personally recall the best times of SEO, search engine optimization in its classic period. It will never happen again, it is a thing of the past thanks to the development of search technology. At the very beginning of September, the month that gave us two search giants at once, I want to once again recall the Russian classic SEO - remember and breathe a sigh of relief: its methods have sunk into oblivion, which means users have every reason to hope that the search results will be only to improve.

Saying goodbye to SEO ...

Everything changes: cars, books, movies, even - to some extent - people. And especially the markets are changing. A global restructuring is taking place in the search marketing market today. The whole era of classic search engine optimization is receding, giving way to comprehensive Internet marketing activities aimed at improving websites. Saying goodbye to the Russian SEO, remember its history.

Thesis about the main thing


Classic Russian SEO is the science of the types of manipulations that helped the site quickly rise in search results for certain queries.

(Among Russian SEO companies there are those whose importance for the search marketing market in runet is impossible to question. But the majority of players were fans of easy results).

Persuasion of Russian SEO

Optimizers in Runet were convinced that any innovations in search engines, in general, all actions of search engines are aimed at one thing - to fight against SEO. Search engines sleep and see how to worsen the quality of life of the optimizer.

Nineties twentieth century

In the second half of the 90s, people begin to actively use search engines.

  • 1993 - the first Wandex search engine on the Internet, created by Matthew Gray from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (he later worked at Google).
  • In the same year, the search engines Aliweb, Repository-Based Software Engineering (RBSE), JumpStation, Architext, from which later Excite grew, and others saw the light.
Wandex and other first search engines were shockingly imperfect by modern standards. Forming the issue under the request, they did not show the most relevant pages, but all that contained the given request, without ranking.
  • 1995 - AltaVista, the most popular search engine of the 90s, was created.
  • 1996 - two Russian search services appeared at once - Rambler and Aport.
  • On September 23, 1997, the Yandex.Ru search system was announced at the Softool exhibition in Moscow (the Yandex company appeared later - in 2000). The 1997 system "understood" Russian morphemes, took into account the distance between words and was able to rank pages according to their relevance to a user query.

The search engine audience is growing - the number of people willing to start earning on this audience is growing. The first optimizers working according to the scheme appear: we study the principles of the search engine operation and adjust to them. This is how the whole Search Engine Optimization industry is born.

Dispatch Epoch

In runet, it lasted until about 2002. In the early days, textual factors are central to ranking. Initially, optimization looks like control over the correctness of the spelling of the names of documents, since it is by the headings that search engines index pages. A little later, the optimizers begin to check also the correctness of the meta tags, the title, make sure that the text on the page contains a sufficient number of times the key words on which this page is promoted.

For several years in a row, search engines have focused largely on the texts of web documents. This made it possible for optimizers with the help of simple manipulations with key phrases in meta tags and other internal factors to “crawl out” to the top for the necessary queries. As a result, the first places in the issuance of most commercial requests were occupied by advertising sites.

Sergey Lyudkevich said about the news epoch: "These were fun times: by copying a page that ranked highly by a particular request and replacing a few words on this page, you could get ahead of the site from which you borrowed this content and" this interview).

When it became clear commercial benefits that can be derived from website optimization, SEO becomes a business offering a service - promotion by position.

2000 - SEO matures

Before the millennium, search engine optimization is like this, flowers, a game of pods. After - everything changes. SEO is becoming a real business, there are companies with high turnover. 2001 was the year when the first serious Russian SEO agencies were founded. That year, Ashmanov and Partners, for example, was created — a company that is considered to be the ancestor of Russian SEO.

Links - great good and great evil

Reference factors that became the main ranking factors in the zero years of the 21st century have their roots in the scientific world. How do scientists estimate the authority of a labor? One way to understand how significant a scientific work is to look at its citation index, which is determined by the number of references from other authors or publications to this work. At the same time, naturally, the more respectable a publication or a scientist who refers to this work, the more significant the work itself looks. Hence the well-known thesis on the market for search marketing: it is not only the quantity that matters, but also the quality of external links.

Since 1998, the search engine Google has begun to gain its worldwide popularity. The highlight of the future global search giant is PageRank algorithm. All other search engines rate web pages based on textual factors (to put it bluntly: the more times a search phrase is mentioned on a page, the higher the page position in the list). Google ranks fundamentally differently: by the number of backlinks to a specific URL.

PageRank was based on calculating the number of external links and the weight of the referring pages, that is, the number and credibility of the resources that cite the page became crucial. The problem of relevance (when it is difficult for a search bot to select the most relevant pages from a mass of documents with the same content) was solved in Google with mathematical elegance. Thanks to PageRank, the algorithm of calculating the authoritativeness of the page, the quality of search in Google has significantly improved.

Google, entering PageRank, relied on link rankings, due to which its issue at some point became more relevant than those of competitors, for which the main factor was still search through the text of the pages. The lack of an alternative to PageRank has made many other search engines uncompetitive.

Reference ranking in runet

In 2002-2003, the term TCI (thematic citation index) is actively included in the lexicon of participants in the Russian search marketing market.

Thematic citation index is a value entered by Yandex that allows you to determine the authority of the site based on the number of links to it from other sites. Moreover, Yandex has always attached importance not only to the quantity, but also to the quality of external links.

This dealt a serious blow to the doorway pages of the time. The quality of the search in Yandex is improving noticeably.

Realizing that the links began to seriously affect the issue, SEOs once again adapted to the changed conditions with their inventiveness - they began to exchange links.

SEO craves for knowledge and profit

2002 - the first conference on SEO-optimization, organized by the company "Ashmanov and Partners" - Optimization. It becomes an annual and perhaps the most authoritative for Russian SEOs.

In the middle of the zero, the first link exchanges and aggregators begin to organize, thanks to which SEO grows into a profitable industry.

By the middle of the zero years, literally one or two links could pull out any request to the top, if these are links from the “fat muzzle”.

Fat muzzle - in the slang of optimizers means the main page of the site with high TCI and PageRank. Links from the "fat muzzle" transferred a lot of weight and therefore were expensive.

The most famous exchanges and aggregators runet

2004-05 years - there are first services for buying and selling links, resembling, rather, a message board. Also actively trading links goes to SEO-forums.

2006 - a new generation of SAPE exchanges appeared, taking the place of the leading Runet exchanges, where links were bought and sold. Links were bought with monthly payment: if the optimizer forgot to pay, the links disappeared from the donor site, paid - appeared again.

2008 - the Miralinks exchange was established and quickly gained the position of one of the leaders in the paid placement market. In the same year, the SeoPult aggregator appeared.

year 2009 - the first exchange of eternal links in GoGetLinks runet and the Rotapost exchange, which specialized mainly on blog links, saw the light of day. Also appeared aggregators Megaindex, Maremoto and Webeffector.

2010 - created Rookee aggregator.

year 2012 - SeoWizard and SeoHummer aggregators appear.

Reference exchanges and aggregators - this is a grandiose project in terms of its arrogance and scale, which received an unprecedented scale in runet. In the eyes of the search and Internet users, SEOs traded links and bought them in order to increase the site’s identity for certain requests - without a hint of embarrassment, as if it was an honest and noble, perfectly normal thing.

Golden Age of Russian SEO

It lasted from 2007, when Sape appeared, until 2009, when Matrixnet began to work in Yandex. This was the best SEO time. The links worked perfectly. Reference budgets exactly correlated with the results of the issue: the more you spend on links, the higher your position. The life of the optimizer has become carefree: I went to the stock exchange, bought links, wrote to the client, which key phrases need to be entered on which pages. And all - live in your pleasure. SEO margins were very high.

The fight for the purity of the issue

From the second half of the 2000s, it becomes obvious that the quality of the issue suffers due to manipulations with links. Since the concept of any search engine is to create the most relevant, satisfying user requests for issuing, the search engine has a tough battle against poor-quality links.

AGS for Yandex and Penguin for Google were the most serious algorithms aimed at clearing the issue from HS.

In 2009, the Matriksnet machine learning algorithm began to work. He made (and rather successful) attempts to determine where the link is natural and where it is of poor quality. Thanks to Matriksnet, the number of factors taken into account when ranking is increased. It was no longer possible to predict with the same accuracy, on which budget and in what timeframe a particular request will be placed in the top.

In 2011, it became obvious that when ranking, behavioral factors are important (Yandex probably began to take them into account at the time when Matriksnet appeared): in 2011, many sites turned out to be under the filter for behavioral cheating.

Where it all turned

Search engine Google has constantly improved its capabilities in the fight against low-quality external links. He is confidently following this path today. To achieve results in Google, you need to pay attention to the content, thanks to him to get natural links that show the level of audience interest in your content.

Buying links is today an absolutely unpromising concept of promotion on Google.

Up until 2013, everyone thought that Yandex would do the same. But on December 5, 2013 at the IBC Russia 2013 conference, Alexander Sadovsky, head of search services at Yandex, said that when ranking in the commercial segment, links would no longer be taken into account by the search engine in 2014.

“Yandex” took a radical path (but, on the other hand, and the link trading in runet also acquired radical forms - it was not open anywhere so arrogantly like us) - on March 12, 2014, it really ceased to take into account the reference factor in ranking by commercial requests.

Optimizers could not and did not want to believe it. For a few more months, they were looking for evidence to the contrary - that the links did work, convincing customers of this by hook or by crook, arguing that Yandex only frightens them. But month after month, update for update - and it became clear that Yandex played fair: the links really do not work. The classic era with SEO is gone forever. A new era of integrated Internet marketing and search engine optimization has begun, based on the continuous improvement of the site in terms of content, usability and design.

Watch the video: 5 Ways to Gain More Instagram Followers 100% Free. Become an Instagram Influencer! (February 2020).


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